Drea, Edward. Japan’s Imperial Army: Its Rise and Fall, 1853-1945.
Wolff, David, et al. World War Zero: The Russo-Japanese War in Global Perspective.
A map of the battle of Liaoyang. Hopefully this helps make it easier to see the component aspects of the Japanese force.
Russian POWs captured at Liaoyang. The Japanese were careful to treat Russian POWs with scrupulous respect as part of a global effort to be accepted as a ‘civilized’ power.
Japanese gunners sight their weapons at Liaoyang.
Japanese troops resting during the Battle of the Sha River. Like soldiers throughout human history, the experience of these recruits was a mix of long periods of boredom and exhaustion with short bursts of mortal terror.
Japanese troops at the Battle of the Sha River (sometimes called the battle of Shaho). Stylized depictions like this print played up the valor and skill of the Japanese but showed little of the hardship or monotony of soldiering.
New technology, like this Russian reconnaissance balloon, was reshaping the battlefield of Manchuria long before it arrived at the Western Front. However, not all commanders were equally willing to embrace the new.